Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Nuclear Sclerotic Cataract among Adults: Systematic Review

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Jeremy Rafael Tandaju
Jessica Audrey


Visual impairment is currently suffered by 253 million people and lead to blindness in 15% of cases. Among them, cataract is the main cause in the world and Indonesia (52%), which could be prevented. Although actions have been taken in-order to manage cataract, the number is increasing 0.1% yearly, thus we conducted a systematic review of 11,377 subjects in 11 case-control studies from PubMed and EBSCOhost in-order to know the risk factors of nuclear sclerotic cataract (NSC), the most common cataract in the world, hence reduce incidence and prevalence of it and blindness. Full article study texts were assessed with STROBE’s criteria for further review. Within study, we concluded three preventable risk factors of NSC. Sunlight exposure which is gained by being outside for leisure (OR=1.45) or work (OR=1.75), could even elevates the risk up to 4.19 folds due to glycation process which occurs with the help of UV light. Diabetes is also linked, both acute (OR=1.66) and more dangerous chronic (OR=3.71) because of the retinopathy mechanism. Furthermore, alcohol (OR=1.18) and smoking (OR=5.44) are also responsible in elevating the risk. However, healthy diet with complete vitamins and low triglycerides, uric acid, and creatinine are proven to be able to cut the risk of NSC by half. Thus, we would like to increase awareness of primary health-care workers and community itself to educate the community about the risk factors of NSC in-order to reduce its incidence and prevalence rate as a step to achieve WHO’s “VISION 2020: The Right to Sight.”

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Tandaju, J. R. and Audrey, J. (2023) “Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Nuclear Sclerotic Cataract among Adults: Systematic Review”, Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 10(1). Available at: https://jamsa.amsa-international.org/index.php/main/article/view/189 (Accessed: 2June2023).
Review and Meta-analysis


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