A Comprehensive Look on Conjugated Targeted Therapies as A Novel Candidate for Personalized Thyroid Carcinoma Treatment

Main Article Content

Valerie Josephine Dirjayanto
Muhammad Afif Naufal
Muhammad Mikail Athif Zhafir Asyura


Thyroid cancer is a substantial threat worldwide due to its prevalence and complication it follows. Current therapy is widely available, although failed to address the burdens associated with the disease, thus requiring a newer approach. Recently, the novel discovery of conjugated targeted therapy and its potential implementation enables a more specific, cancer-targeting mechanism, with potentially higher efficacy and minimum adverse effect than conventional treatments. This review was made to assess its potential, via comprehensive screening on several databases, such as Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Wiley with set criterions. The search yielded 6 viable studies analyzing different forms of targeted therapies Based on the included studies, conjugated targeted therapy displayed high selectivity and cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, while remained tolerable toward normal cells and the host. Not only as a therapeutic agent, this therapy also possessed imaging enhancement and metastasis detection, indicating high diagnostic value. Although, applicability and cost- efficiency of the treatment should be considered, due to extra costs in biosynthesizing therapeutic agents and phenotyping of targeted cells. Nonetheless, the high selectivity and potentially better safety profile of conjugated targeted therapy should be assessed further, and weighed with its limitations. All in all, conjugated targeted therapy has been proven to be selective towards cancer cell and a potent candidate as personalized treatment. Biosafety analysis of its implementation is recommended, followed by further clinical trials on human samples.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dirjayanto, V. J., Muhammad Afif Naufal and Muhammad Mikail Athif Zhafir Asyura (2023) “A Comprehensive Look on Conjugated Targeted Therapies as A Novel Candidate for Personalized Thyroid Carcinoma Treatment”, Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 10(1). Available at: https://jamsa.amsa-international.org/index.php/main/article/view/422 (Accessed: 17June2024).
Review Articles


Zhai M, Zhang D, Long J, Gong Y, Ye F, Liu S, et al. The global burden of thyroid cancer and its attributable risk factor in 195 countries and territories: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Cancer Medicine. 2021;10(13):4542–54.

Tsang VHM, Gild M, Glover A, Clifton-Bligh R, Robinson BG. Thyroid cancer in the age of COVID-19. Endocrine-Related Cancer. 2020 Nov;27(11):R407–16

Guan W, Liang W, Zhao Y, Liang H, Chen Z, Li Y, et al. Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. Eur Respir J. 2020 May;55(5):2000547.

Xu L, Bai Q, Zhang X, Yang H. Folate-mediated chemotherapy and diagnostics: An updated review and outlook. J Control Release. 2017 Apr


Chen L, Zhao K, Li F, He X. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma With Elevated Serum CEA and Normal Serum Calcitonin After Surgery: A Case Report and Literature Review. FrontOncol.2020Oct 27;10:526716.doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.526716.

Ham JC, van Meerten E, Fiets WE, Beerepoot LV, Jeurissen FJF, Slingerland M, et al. Methotrexate plus or minus cetuximab as first-line treatment in a recurrent or metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma population of the head and neck (SCCHN), unfit for cisplatin combination treatment, a phase Ib-randomized phase II study Commence. Head Neck. 2020

May;42(5):828-838. doi:10.1002/hed.26053.

Nguyen QT, Lee EJ, Huang MG, Park YI, Khullar A, Plodkowski RA. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2015 Feb;8(1):30-40. PMID: 25964831; PMCID: PMC4415174.

Wilkes GM. Targeted Therapy: Attacking Cancer with Molecular and Immunological Targeted Agents. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2018 Apr-

Jun;5(2):137-155.doi: 10.4103/apjon.apjon_79_17. PMID: 29607374; PMCID: PMC5863423.

Nasiri H, Valedkarimi Z, Aghebati-Maleki L, Majidi J. Antibody-drug conjugates: Promising and efficient tools for targeted cancer therapy. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Sep;233(9):64416457. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26435. Epub 2018 Mar 25. PMID: 29319167.

Crisci S, Amitrano F, Saggese M, Muto T, Sarno S, Mele S, Vitale P, Ronga G, Berretta M, Di Francia R. Overview of Current Targeted Anti-Cancer Drugs for Therapy in Onco-Hematology. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019Jul28;55(8):414.doi:10.3390/medicina55080414. PMID: 31357735; PMCID: PMC6723645.

Baudino TA. Targeted Cancer Therapy: The Next Generation of Cancer Treatment. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2015;12(1):3-20. doi:10.2174/157016381266615060214 4310. PMID: 26033233.

Nasiri H, Valedkarimi Z, Aghebati-Maleki L, Majidi J. Antibody-drug conjugates: Promising and efficient tools for targeted cancer therapy. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Sep;233(9):6441- 6457. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26435. Epub 2018 Mar 25. PMID: 29319167.

Lee YT, Tan YJ, Oon CE. Molecular targeted therapy: Treating cancer with specificity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Sep 5;834:188-196. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.07.034. Epub 2018 Jul 20. PMID: 30031797.

Juweid ME, Hajjar G, Swayne LC, Sharkey RM, Suleiman S, Herskovic T, Pereira M, Rubin AD, Goldenberg DM. Phase I/II trial of (131)I-MN- 14F(ab)2 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody in the treatment of patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer. 1999 Apr 15;85(8):1828-42. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(19990415)85:8<1828::aid-cncr25>3.0.co;2-h. PMID: 10223579.

Lin R, Ma B, Liu N, Zhang L, He T, Liu X, Chen T, Liu W, Liang Y, Wang T, Ni G, Liu X, Yang N, Zhang J, Yuan J. Targeted radioimmunotherapy with the iodine-131-labeled caerin 1.1 peptide for human anaplastic thyroid cancer in nude mice. Ann Nucl Med. 2021 Jul;35(7):811-822. doi: 10.1007/s12149-021-01618-3. Epub 2021 May 4. PMID: 33948902; PMCID: PMC8197720.

Wang Q, Sui G, Wu X, Teng D, Zhu L, Guan S, Ran H, Wang Z, Wang H. A sequential targeting nanoplatform for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma theranostics. Acta Biomater. 2020 Jan 15; 102:367-383. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.11.043. Epub 2019 Nov 26. PMID: 31778831.

Wang Y, Sui G, Teng D, Wang Q,Qu J, Zhu L, Ran H, et al. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) triggered drug release from cetuximab-conjugatedphase-changeable nanoparticles for precision theranostics against anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Biomaterials Science. 2019; 7: 196-210. Available from: DOI https://doi.org/10.1039/C8BM00970

Jang S, Yu XM, Montemayor-Garcia C, Ahmed K, Weinlander E, Lloyd RV, Dammalapati A, Marshall D, Prudent JR, Chen H. Dysadherin specific drug conjugates for the treatment of thyroid cancers with aggressive phenotypes. Oncotarget. 2017 Apr 11;8(15):24457-24468.

doi:10.18632/oncotarget.14904. PMID: 28160550; PMCID: PMC5421862.

Niemelä E, Desai D, Niemi R, Doroszko M, Özliseli E, Kemppainen K, Rahman NA, Sahlgren C, Törnquist K, Eriksson JE, Rosenholm JM. Nanoparticles carrying fingolimod and methotrexate enables targeted induction of apoptosis and immobilization of invasive thyroid cancer. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2020Mar;148:1-9.doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.12.015. Epub 2020 Jan 7. PMID: 31917332.

Wang LY, Palmer FL, Nixon IJ, Thomas D, Patel SG, Shaha AR, Shah JP, Tuttle RM, Ganly I. Multi-organ distant metastases confer worse disease-specific survival in differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2014 Nov;24(11):1594-9. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0173. Epub 2014 Sep 24. PMID: 25162180.

Harvey C. Ultrasound with microbubbles. Cancer Imaging. 2015 Oct 2;15(Suppl 1):O19. doi: 10.1186/1470-7330-15-S1-O19. PMCID: PMC4601836.