Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as an Alternative Therapeutic Modality for Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

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Oliver Emmanuel Yausep
Mohamed Amshar Adwani
Clara Gunawan


High tuberculosis (TB) disease burden has been a perennial problem for many countries for centuries. As of 2014, there were approximately 9.6 million incident cases of TB worldwide, 1.5 million of which, resulted in deaths. Established treatment regimens for Tuberculosis such as the HRZE regimen (Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide), have proven to be effective in eradicating the disease even in developing countries. However, new strains of drug resistant Tuberculosis have been discovered, they are the Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) and Extreme Drug Resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis. These strains have shown resistance to even second line drug regimens and their incidence has progressively increased since 2003. In search of a new alternative mode of treatment, researchers have discovered a new technology called antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT), which is already in use to treat cancerous lesions to date and shows promise for application with Tuberculosis patients.

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How to Cite
Yausep, O. E., Adwani, M. A. and Gunawan, C. (2019) “Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as an Alternative Therapeutic Modality for Drug Resistant Tuberculosis”, Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 7(1). Available at: (Accessed: 18April2021).
Review Article


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