Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as an Alternative Therapeutic Modality for Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

Main Article Content

Oliver Emmanuel Yausep
Mohamed Amshar Adwani
Clara Gunawan

Abstract

High tuberculosis (TB) disease burden has been a perennial problem for many countries for centuries. As of 2014, there were approximately 9.6 million incident cases of TB worldwide, 1.5 million of which, resulted in deaths. Established treatment regimens for Tuberculosis such as the HRZE regimen (Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide), have proven to be effective in eradicating the disease even in developing countries. However, new strains of drug resistant Tuberculosis have been discovered, they are the Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) and Extreme Drug Resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis. These strains have shown resistance to even second line drug regimens and their incidence has progressively increased since 2003. In search of a new alternative mode of treatment, researchers have discovered a new technology called antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT), which is already in use to treat cancerous lesions to date and shows promise for application with Tuberculosis patients.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yausep, O. E., Adwani, M. A. and Gunawan, C. (2019) “Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as an Alternative Therapeutic Modality for Drug Resistant Tuberculosis”, Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 7(1). Available at: https://jamsa.amsa-international.org/index.php/main/article/view/149 (Accessed: 18April2021).
Section
Review Article

References

Organization W. Global Tuberculosis Report 2013. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.

Sung N, Back S, Jung J, Kim K-H, Kim J-K, Lee JH, et al. Inactivation of multidrug resistant (MDR)- and extensively drug resistant (XDR)-Mycobacterium tuberculosis by photodynamic therapy. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2013;10(4): 694-702.

Fogel N. Tuberculosis: A disease without boundaries. Tuberculosis.2015;95(5):527-31.

Barker RD. Clinical tuberculosis. Medicine. 2012. 40(6):340-5.

Rangaka MX, Cavalcante SC, Marais BJ, Thim S, Martinson NA, Swaminathan S, et al. Controlling the seedbeds of tuberculosis: diagnosos and treatment of tuberculosis infection. Lancet, The.2015;386(10010):2344-53.

Arbex MA, Siqueira HR, Ambrosio LD, Migliori GB. The challenge of managing extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis at a referral hospital in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: a report of three cases. J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):554-9.

Jori G, Fabris C, Soncin M, Ferro S, Coppellotti O, Dei D, et al. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of microbial infections: basic principles and perspective applications. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine.2006;38(5): 468-81.

Hanakova A, Bogdanova K, Tomankova K, Pizova K, Malohlava J, Biner S, et al. The application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on S. aureus and E. coli using porphyrin photosensitizers bound to cyclodextrin. Microbiological Research.2014;169(2-3);163-70.

Grinholc M, Szramka B, Olender K, Graczyk A. Bactericidal effect of photodynamic therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain with the use of various porphyrin photosensitizers. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2007;54(3): 665-70.

Wong T-W, Wang Y-Y, Sheu H-M, Chuang Y-C. Bactericidal effects of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic action on Vibrio vulnificus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2005;49(3): 895-902.

Chang J-E, Oak C-H, Sung N, Jheon S. The potential application of photodynamic therapy in drug-resistant tuberculosis. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015;150: 60-5.

Vilela SFG, Junqueira JC, Barbosa JO, Majewski M, Munin E, Jorge AOC. Photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms by malachite green and phenothiazine dyes: an in vitro study. Archives of Oral Biology. 2012;57: 704-10.

Hamblin MR, Hasan T. Photodynamic therapy: a new antimicrobial approach to infectious disease? Photochem Photobio Sci.2004;3: 436-50.

Mah N, Perez-Iratxeta C, Andrade-Navarro MA. Outer membrane pore protein prediction in mycobacteria using genomic comparison. Microbiology.2010;156: 2506-15.

Siroy A, Mailaender C, Harder D, Koerber S, Wolschendorf F, Danilchanka O, et al. Rv1698 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis represents a new class of channel-forming outer membrane proteins. J Biol Chem.2008;283: 17827-37.

Wiegell SR, Kongshoj B, Wulf HC. Mycobacterium marinum infection cured by photodynamic therapy. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(9): 1241-2.