Is Acetazolamide Still the Best Option? -A Retrospective Review to Identify the Optimal Approach for Preventing Acute Mountain Sickness-

Main Article Content

Miyuka Kushibe
Hibiki Yamazaki
Riko Shima
Keigo Sano
Yudai Kaneda

Abstract

Introduction


The percentage of mountaineers affected by Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) at 3000m was 75%. The risk factors were maximum altitude, age, sex, physical condition, exercise intensity, migraine, and pre-existing diseases. As a preventative measure, Acetazolamide has always been the first prescription choice by physicians. However, other medications, such Ibuprofen and Dexamethasone have also been used recently, and there is insufficient information on optimal prevention.


 


Objective


This paper aims to evaluate the optimal medication for AMS by comparing each drug's efficacy and side effects to acetazolamide.


 


Method


PubMed was used to search for the latest articles that were published between 2005 and 2022 by using the keywords [AMS], [Prevention], [Acetazolamide], [Dexamethasone], [Ibuprofen], and [Ginkgo Biloba]. Information on pharmacological measures' efficacy on the prevention of AMS were gathered. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate the efficacy.


 


Results


The number of published articles, the range and median incidence rates for the drugs investigated were, 15, 0-62% and 36% for Acetazolamide respectively; 10, 10-74% and 30% for Dexamethasone; 6, 16-62% and 33.7% for Ibuprofen; 2, 0-65% and 32.5% for Ginkgo Biloba.


 


Conclusion


Despite various biases, the incidence of AMS was best prevented by Dexamethasone based on median values obtained from a review of previous studies. However, while the effectiveness of each drug was evaluated individually in this study, there is also a possibility that a combination of drugs may be more effective, and further detailed analysis will be needed in order to maximize the preventive effect of AMS.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kushibe, M., Yamazaki, H., Shima, R., Mizuno, A., Sano, K., Okita, K. and Kaneda, Y. (2023) “Is Acetazolamide Still the Best Option? -A Retrospective Review to Identify the Optimal Approach for Preventing Acute Mountain Sickness-”, Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Available at: https://jamsa.amsa-international.org/index.php/main/article/view/523 (Accessed: 4February2023).
Section
Scientific Papers (EAMSC 2023 Nepal)

References

Our references will be disclosed in the presentation.